Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava . The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet 's mantle or crust.
Extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rock is produced when magma exits and cools as lava at or near the Earth's surface. Exposed to the relatively cool temperatures of the atmosphere, the lava cools quickly meaning that mineral crystals don't have much time to grow. This results in rocks with a very fine-grained or even glassy texture.
igneous rock, any of various crystalline or glassy rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of molten earth material. Igneous rocks constitute one of the three principal classes of rocks, the others being metamorphic and sedimentary.
In general, igneous rocks appear dark, dull, and uniform, with no visible layering. However, they can be almost any color including very light gray, dark gray, pink, and green. The texture of igneous rocks varies from extremely coarse, large crystals to smooth and glassy depending on quickly they cool.
Granite. Granite is a type of igneous rock that consists of quartz (gray), plagioclase feldspar (white), and alkali feldspar (beige), plus dark minerals such as biotite and hornblende. Granite is used by the public as a catchall name for any light-colored, coarse-grained igneous rock.
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